Related posts:Costa Rican plaintiffs disappointed, but not surprised, by president’s IVF proposal President Solís legalizes IVF despite doubts from the Caja Pope Francis arrives for historic first US visit Commenting on Zika virus, Pope Francis calls abortion ‘a human evil’ We Costa Ricans have an important date this Sunday, but I’m still not clear as to whether we’re headed to the polls or the Christian altars. Without a doubt, this electoral campaign has been more than saturated with religious morality.Each presidential candidate – especially in recent weeks – has taken pains to publicly express his religious faith in order to pocket the votes of the faithful, from the formerly agnostic leftist José María Villalta to the traditionally Libertarian Otto Guevara, not to mention the four-times-divorced Johnny Araya.All of them, without exception, have recited Bible passages on television, mentioned God in speeches, recalled encyclicals and cited Pope Francis.Each assures us that his social policies are based on the doctrine of the Catholic Church, or at least on the Christian principles taught by Jesus.This campaign is the most unpleasant and undeniable proof that in Costa Rica, politics and religion are only separated on paper and not in reality. In fact, they are immodestly joined.The Catholic Church hastily entered the electoral scene, presenting at the end of 2013 an official document to “illuminate” its faithful voters, advising them not to support candidates who promoted a “culture of death,” or in other words, those who support in vitro fertilization, which unlike any other country in the hemisphere, is illegal here.Evangelicals, who have their own presidential and legislative candidates, weren’t to be left behind, and invited other candidates to religious events. It was a courtesy the candidates happily accepted so that pastors could pray with them and lay their hands on their heads. All of this was transmitted live on a Christian television station.Religion is so deeply rooted in Costa Rica that the party accused of being communists has two former priests as candidates to the Legislative Assembly. And the so-called Libertarian candidate has flip-flopped on the pro-gay-rights position of his previous campaigns, declaring himself to now be “pro-life.”Luis Guillermo Solís repeats time and again that he wants a “secular state, but with God,” while Araya passes out fliers claiming his total harmony with the Christian values that define Costa Rican society.“We Costa Ricans are people of faith. We value the millennial traditions and customs that we’ve inherited from Our Lord Jesus. Our God is the God of Love and Solidarity. He is not (the God of) atheist materialism of the F.A. (Broad Front Party),” the PLN flier claims.But even the ranks of the Broad Front Party defend their agenda with the same language: “José María Villalta is a man of faith, as well as the majority of members of the Broad Front Party. Two former catholic priests in Limón and Guanacaste head the list of legislative candidates,” the party states.Tomorrow, thousands of Costa Ricans will head to the polls as if they were temples after being guided by spiritual leaders offering religious arguments instead of rational political ones. They will elect a government that has commitments to power groups organized by religious faith.The line between politics and religion here isn’t blurred – it simply no longer exists in this confessional state.Nancy De Lemos is a journalist and former director in Costa Rica for the news agency EFE. A graduate of the University of Costa Rica, she now works in communication for global environmental NGOs. Facebook Comments
In 1977, an investor paid $3,000 to purchase the dismembered penis of the famous military leader and emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte. According to Time Magazine, the dismembered penis measured one and a half inches in length when it was purchased. The price was based on an unconventional “appraisal,” where each inch was deemed to be worth $1,000.Perhaps the only thing stranger than the $3,000 purchase, is the dismembered organ’s 50-year trek across the Western World.Napoleon Bonaparte“The penis had taken on quite a mythic status,” said Tony Perrottet, author of Napoleon’s Privates: 2,500 Years of History Unzipped. “It was in a little leather presentation box, and it had been fried out in the air. It hadn’t been put in the formaldehyde, so it as rather the worse for wear, a bit like beef jerky.”According to Perrottet, Napoleon’s doctor took the penis during Napoleon’s autopsy, after Napoleon died on the island of St. Helena in 1821. The military giant had been exiled there and likely died of stomach cancer.Napoleon on His Death Bed, by Horace Vernet, 1826.The doctor gave the penis to a priest, who smuggled it into Corsica, shortly before he was murdered. Next, the penis fell into the hands of a British collector in 1916.Perrottet claims that the French government turned down an opportunity to buy the penis, and it went on to become a public relic for the next 50 years. In 1927, it was even put on display in New York by an American rare books dealer who had bought the penis in 1924.Mort de Napoléon Ier à Sainte-Hélène, le 5 mai 1821, by Charles de Steuben, c. 1828Finally, in 1977, a urologist and professor decided to end the notoriety of Napoleon’s dismembered penis by purchasing it for $3,000. Not wanting to draw any more attention to the penis, Lattimer kept it under his bed and refused to show it to anyone who asked to see it.Since then, rumors have circulated that a subsequent offer was made to purchase the penis for $100,000. If the offer was real, that would be a total return on investment of about 3,200 percent.The sarcophagus of Napoleon Bonaparte. Photo by Son of Groucho CC BY 2.0Had Lattimer decided to part with the penis, it would have been a more profitable investment than Facebook, Google, Microsoft or even Apple.For example, on May 18, 2012, Facebook’s stock was priced at $38. Six years later, on August 7, 2018, the stock price was about $185. This is almost a 500 percent return on investment over a period of six years, making Napoleon’s penis potentially six and a half times more profitable than Facebook.Historic Noblemen and their ridiculous nicknamesOn August 19, 2004, Google’s stock was priced at $85. Fourteen years later, on August 7, 2018, their stock price was about $1,250. In spite of being a near 1,500 percent return on investment, Napoleon’s penis was potentially more than twice as profitable.Napoleon is often represented in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that often served as his personal escort, with a large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture.On March 13, 1986, Microsoft’s stock was priced at $21. Thirty-two years later, on August 7, 2018, the stock price was about $108. This is approximately a 500 percent return on investment over a period of more than three decades, making Napoleon’s penis potentially six times more profitable than Microsoft.Actor dressed as Napoleon. Historical costume.On December 12, 1980, Apple’s stock was priced at just $22. Thirty-eight years later, on August 7, 2018, the stock price was about $207. This is just shy of a 1,000 percent return on investment over a period of nearly forty years, making Napoleon’s penis potentially more than three times as profitable.Read another story from us: Myths of History: Was Napoleon Bonaparte Short?When Lattimer died in 2007, the famous penis went to his daughter Evan. No records exist that it has changed owners since then. On May 10, 2011, Time Magazine named Napoleon’s Penis as one of the “10 most famous stolen body parts.”Marea Harris is a professional freelance writer with over 7 years of experience. Having an MBA from a reputable university in the UK, Marea has researched and written thousands of articles to date.