Press Corporation Limited (PCL.mw) listed on the Malawi Stock Exchange under the Industrial holding sector has released it’s 2014 interim results for the half year.For more information about Press Corporation Limited (PCL.mw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Press Corporation Limited (PCL.mw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Press Corporation Limited (PCL.mw) 2014 interim results for the half year.Company ProfilePress Corporation Limited is the largest holding company in Malawi; with vested interests in real estate, energy, food and beverages, consumer goods, financial services and telecommunications. The highly diversified company has stakes in 13 companies in Malawi made up of 8 subsidiaries, 4 joint ventures and one associate. Well-known brands in its portfolio include: National Bank of Malawi in the financial services sector, Malawi Telecommunications Limited and Telekom Networks Limited in the telecommunication sector, Ethanol Company Limited and Presscane Limited in the energy sector, People’s Trading Centre Limited in the consumer goods sector, Press Properties Limited and Manzini Limited in the property investment and development sector, and The Foods Company in the food manufacturing sector. Press Corporation Limited is listed on the Malawi Stock Exchange
Photographs CopyAbout this officeEKAR & Full Scale StudioOfficeFollowProductsWoodGlassConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesChiang MaiIcebergThailandPublished on February 22, 2020Cite: “Mae Kao Canal House / EKAR & Full Scale Studio” 22 Feb 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
Tagged with: Bmycharity Digital Events AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis In a radical new take on online sponsorship, Bmycharity has reinvented the art of fundraiser recruitment, helping Events Fundraisers slash the cost of recruiting new participants for their fundraising events in the UK and overseas.The Bmycharity team are familiar with the issues facing the sector in fundraiser recruitment and have developed an innovative and proven solution, reducing costs, time and energy required by a charity to organise events. Bmycharity has created a unique process for charities to communicate with new fundraisers through the personal networks of every person fundraising on the site.Their statistics show that each fundraiser communicates with at least 45 people – all of whom are warm prospects for potential recruitment as well as donating. Combined with a further 250,000 individuals reached through their affiliate networks and a subscriber base of over 40,000, Bmycharity is offering a compelling alternative to conventional fundraiser recruitment.“Our unique web-based service offers charities the facility to recruit fundraisers unlike any other,” said Ben Brabyn, managing director of Bmycharity. “Every page created on Bmycharity is customised for each charity, talking directly to the high response and lucrative audience that are keen to be inspired by events and experiences. Inspirational charities are finding that each page on our site can save at least £500* in recruitment costs. Bmycharity is the obvious choice for any motivated charity looking to expand its fundraising horizons, reach new audiences and keep costs down.”Results from Google Analytics show that since January 2008 Bmycharity has received over 90,000 visitors per month to their site.To make the most of the fundraising recruitment at Bmycharity, and for further information, please visit www.bmycharity.com or telephone: 0845 0580549.-ends-For further press information and photography, please contact:Emma Walton, Walton Public Relations, 86 Roman Way, Bourton-on-the-Water, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL54 2HD Tel: 01451 821800 Mobile: 07515 357842 Email: [email protected]*Bmycharity estimates that the cost to recruit one fundraiser is as much as £500. Google Web statistics show that every Bmycharity page is viewed by on average 45 people and therefore with only a 2% conversion rate each page can reduce recruitment costs by £500.Notes to Editors:• Bmycharity was founded in 2000 by Ben Brabyn and Matt Cooper.• Bmycharity is unique website that offers charities the opportunity to recruit fundraisers and collect sponsorship.• Their key objective is to reach the highly responsive and lucrative audience who are keen to be inspired by events/challenges and raise money for charity.• Advertising campaigns carried within the Bmycharity website have proved to create a positive response in the sign up of individuals through challenges/events, donations and other fundraising opportunities.• Fees are 20%-30% lower than other fundraising websites.• Bmycharity gives fundraisers a lifetime experience whilst helping their favourite charity. Bmycharity services slash cost of fundraiser recruitment for Events Fundraising Departments About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Howard Lake | 8 October 2008 | News 37 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis
Advertisement Melanie May | 7 May 2019 | News Tagged with: Funding trusts and foundations Standard Life Foundation is offering grants to support work on financial wellbeing.The Foundation is inviting proposals from organisations seeking funding for policy work, campaigning and research focused on its three programme areas:Income (wages, welfare benefits, pensions, and taxation)Spending (cost of living, consumer spending, gambling, borrowing and payment problems)Assets (general saving, retirement saving, housing and taxation)Organisations have until 3 June 2019 at 1pm to apply. There is no minimum or maximum size of grant, however most grants will range between £10,000 and £250,000, with the majority for between £50,000 to £150,000 in total. Few grants will be made for more than £150,000.This is Standard Life Foundation‘s second funding round of 2019 and will be the final call for applications for 2019. The Foundation intends to make grants of around £2million per year.The Foundation has also launched a new website with funding guidelines to help applicants with their proposals.Mubin Haq, Standard Life Foundation Chief Executive, said:“We’re delighted to invite applications for funding and look forward to making our first grants in June 2019. We want to offer more than just money and to be engaged in the issues we’re funding.“We encourage people to get in touch with their ideas for how we can ensure we improve living standards and tackle financial problems. We don’t just fund research, we are interested in campaigns and policy work to ensure strategic change in this area – for work that could make a real and lasting difference to the lives of people living on low to middle incomes in the UK.” 350 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis40 Grants available from Standard Life Foundation for financial wellbeing work 351 total views, 3 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis40 About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com.
Facebook Sam Fristachihttps://www.tcu360.com/author/sam-fristachi/ McKenzie Nichols against Kansas State. Photo Courtesy of GoFrogs.com ReddIt Women’s Basketball on three-game skid after loss to Oklahoma Twitter TCU rowing program strengthens after facing COVID-19 setbacks Facebook Linkedin Sam Fristachihttps://www.tcu360.com/author/sam-fristachi/ Women’s basketball falls in Big 12 Championship quarterfinals to Baylor Women’s Basketball falls to Kansas State in overtime loss Women’s Basketball falls in regular-season finale against Texas Sam Fristachihttps://www.tcu360.com/author/sam-fristachi/ Sam Fristachi + posts Sam Fristachihttps://www.tcu360.com/author/sam-fristachi/ Another series win lands TCU Baseball in the top 5, earns Sikes conference award Linkedin Previous articleTCU alumnus to appear on reality TV showNext articleIndividual safe after threatening to jump from Amon G. Carter Stadium Sam Fristachi RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR ReddIt Samantha Fristachi is a senior from Massapequa, New York. She is a journalism and sports broadcasting major and a business minor. She hopes to be a sports broadcaster on ESPN one day. Twitter printMcKenzie Nichols records a dig against Kansas State. Photo Courtesy of GoFrogs.comTCU dropped a five-set road contest against Kansas State Saturday despite strong individual performances from middle blockers Katie Clark and Afedo Manyang.Clark and Manyang each had a career-high night in hitting percentage, which helped TCU set a new season-best with 13 aces in the loss.“Although we did not come away with the result we wanted, we made big strides in some areas tonight,” said head coach Jill Kramer. “It was great to see Katie and Smiley [Manyang] capitalize on that. We also had one of our better serving performances on the road in a tough KSU environment.”TCU got off to a good start in the first set thanks to Kansas State’s errors — the Frogs took a 10-7 lead; however, the Wildcats tightened up their plays and took the first set 25-21.The tone of the second set was set early thanks to Audrey Nalls and Manyang, who combined for the first of four TCU blocks.The Horned Frogs jumped to a 4-1 lead shortly thereafter and never looked back. Outside hitter élan McCall had her best set of the season, finishing with a team-best four kills on .364 hitting, three digs and a block. TCU’s defense also improved in this set with four digs from Dani Dennison and two blocks apiece from Nalls, Manyang and Clark. The Horned Frogs would win the second set 25-18.TCU held the lead until late in the third set — the Wildcats would win the set 25-23. Clark had found her rhythm on offense though, with five kills on .625 hitting.Once again, the Horned Frogs responded to a close set loss to win the fourth set 25-17. Clark and Manyang led with strong offensive performances: Clark would finish the set with five kills on .714 hitting and Manyang had four kills on .429 hitting. Nalls also contributed to the offensive performance with four service aces, including three consecutive aces at one point.The momentum gained from the fourth set came to a bitter end halfway through the fifth as K-State won the final nine points to win the set, 15-7, and the match.The Horned Frogs have a week before they return back to action against the Kansas Jayhawks on Saturday at the Rickel. The time of the match has not been announced yet and will be announced Monday. TCU baseball finds their biggest fan just by saying hello
TAGS WhatsApp Eaze Releases 2020 State of Cannabis Report: “How Cannabis Consumers Responded to Crisis” Twitter Local NewsBusiness Pinterest Previous articleOffice Depot Earns Perfect Score in Human Rights Campaign’s 2021 Corporate Equality IndexNext articleDave Secures $100 Million Credit Facility from Victory Park Capital Digital AIM Web Support Pinterest SAN FRANCISCO–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Jan 28, 2021– Eaze, California’s largest legal cannabis marketplace, today released its sixth annual Eaze Insights State of Cannabis Report. The 2020 report, “How Cannabis Consumers Responded to Crisis”, looks at aggregate consumer trends driving the world’s largest cannabis market in a year rocked by unprecedented cultural, economic and public health challenges. The report aggregates Eaze’s proprietary data to illustrate the behavior of the over 400,000 consumers who purchased via the platform in 2020. With 6.5 million legal deliveries completed to-date, Eaze can offer unique insights into how 2020 impacted consumption, uncovering patterns that can be generalized to markets nationally and globally. Key findings include:Consumers relied on cannabis delivery during quarantine. Consumer demand driven by COVID-19 led to significant increases in the number of new deliveries and order size.Calls for social justice elevated equity brands. 2020 saw a greater demand for social equity products, underscoring increased consumer awareness – especially among customers over age 30 – about the importance of BIPOC-owned brands.Edibles won the year. Edibles became the most popular product category across major markets and age groups, reflecting the public health focus on COVID’s respiratory impacts. Cannabis drinks especially benefited from the shift to Zoom socializing.A tough holiday season increased consumption. Consumers used more cannabis over the 2020 winter holidays, when many celebrated without their families.Cannabis helped us stay sexy at home. Consumers increasingly relied on weed to increase their sexual satisfaction during stay-at-home orders.Cannabis won the 2020 election. Cannabis legalization in Arizona, New Jersey, Montana and South Dakota united voters on both sides of the aisle and outpaced presidential candidates in key states. In Arizona, Mississippi and New Jersey, cannabis got more votes than either presidential candidate. Consumer anxiety, meanwhile, fueled a demand uptick as votes were tallied. “In this crisis year, cannabis emerged as an essential product and a unifying political issue,” said Ro Choy, CEO of Eaze. “Consumers relied on delivery during the pandemic and policymakers in emerging markets should look at the data and anticipate how robust demand for legal delivery will work in their communities. The report also shows consumer excitement for social equity brands, affirming that putting money in the pockets of BIPOC entrepreneurs is good business and a direct way to address the War on Drugs.” The full report can be found here. ABOUT EAZE Eaze delivers good with the goods. As California’s largest legal cannabis marketplace, we bring enjoyment and convenience to our customers, break down barriers to access, and cultivate community in everything we do. With over six million cannabis deliveries to-date, we are committed to creating a more diverse and sustainable industry through our Momentum business accelerator and Social Equity Partners Program. www.eaze.com. View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210128005273/en/ CONTACT: Elizabeth Ashford, Eaze [email protected] KEYWORD: UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA CALIFORNIA INDUSTRY KEYWORD: TOBACCO RETAIL OTHER RETAIL SOURCE: Eaze Copyright Business Wire 2021. PUB: 01/28/2021 10:00 AM/DISC: 01/28/2021 10:01 AM http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210128005273/en Facebook WhatsApp By Digital AIM Web Support – January 28, 2021 Twitter Facebook
WhatsApp Twitter Pinterest Twitter By Digital AIM Web Support – February 24, 2021 Facebook Local News Community health concerns impact jail costs WhatsApp Facebook Pinterest Ector County Detention Center Health care expenditures for those behind bars are a growing concern at the Ector County Law Enforcement Center. Counties are obligated to provide appropriate medical, mental and dental services for people that are incarcerated due to state mandates, but budgeting for these expenses comes with challenges. “Inmate medical care has just skyrocketed, and we have inmates over here that we are required to take to doctor visits, for wound care, dialysis and various other things,” Ector County Sheriff Mike Griffis said. Estimated total operating costs for all 254 Texas counties increased by about 7 percent during the last fiscal year, from $1.5 billion to $1.6 billion, due to numerous contributing factors including health care, a Texas Association of Counties 2018 Unfunded Mandates Survey stated. Forty-nine counties provided TAC with their expenditures for jail inmates’ trips to hospital emergency rooms, including Ector County, and the results showed a sharp increase in recent years. TAC made estimations for the entire state based on data gathered from respondents and concluded about $40.5 million was spent last fiscal year for emergency room visits by jail inmates, up about 53 percent from 2017 and triple that of fiscal year 2011. Adjusting county budgets to account for health care needed in jails can be difficult to predict. Just this month, Ector County approved a budget amendment to cover further costs at ECLEC. Ector County Auditor Randy Donner said the original budget for this year allocated $787,000 just for jail medical services, but an amendment for an additional $800,000 was passed last week to cover items like prescription drugs, medical supplies and doctor visits. Griffis described the issue as an everyday battle with logistics. The number of people in custody fluctuates on a daily basis because there are people coming in and being released from the facility 24 hours a day. The detention center is a facility with a housing capacity of 667 inmates and about 230 have been outsourced to other counties. Interlocal agreements with other counties are used to house and care for the people that Ector County does not have the physical room for or does not have the number of employees to meet mandated jailer-to-inmate ratios set by the Texas Commission on Jail Standards. Griffis said inmates that are sent to other counties are those that are minimum security risks and do not have any known behavioral, medical or mental issues, which leaves the population of incarcerated individuals identified as needing the most care concentrated in Ector County. Some solutions being sought to control for rising operating costs include a jail expansion that is expected to be completed by October. The project will bring the total number of beds the jail will have up to 1,019 and reduce outsourcing cost. The county spends about $45 a day for each inmate housed at another county jail. Another avenue the county has taken involves partnering with local mental health authority, Permia Care, to use state grant money to provide continuity of care to people with mental illness who are involved in the criminal justice system. A primary goal for Permia Care is decreasing recidivism of those who need treatment rather than incarceration. Todd Luzadder, the mental health director for Permia Care, said finding clinically appropriate solutions for patients before they are released is ultimately a cost savings for the community. The people jailed at ECLEC come from a community where health care is already a widespread concern. The Ector County Physical Activity Coalition identified the area as one of the unhealthiest counties in the entire state of Texas in 2015, and the next year a Medical Center Hospital community health needs assessment listed addressing high mortality rates, chronic diseases, preventable conditions and unhealthy lifestyles as a top priority for the following three years. The MCH assessment stated as of 2015 Ector County had a significantly higher rate, 23 percent, of uninsured adults between the ages of 18 to 64 years old compared to the state, 16 percent, and nation, about 11 percent. Those without insurance are more likely to go without preventative care and may develop more serious conditions that require treatment that comes at a greater financial cost down the line. An updated community health needs assessment will be released later this year. Griffis said there will not be one fix for the problem occurring in the jail, but he hopes that the state will step up to ease the burden placed on local governments with limited funds. TAGS Previous articleAdrian Garcia FloresNext articlePERRYMAN: Too low? Digital AIM Web Support
Google+ Anti water charges groups to hold ‘Bin the Bills’ protests next month Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan fire RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Previous articleMcLean’s ankle injury not so seriousNext articleVenues confirmed for Ulster U21 Semi Finals admin Twitter Pinterest 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North Facebook The Right2Water group in Donegal says it will be asking the public in Donegal to offer suggestions as to where the campaign needs to go.Spokesperson Cllr Gary Doherty was speaking as the group called for a general election, claiming the government can no longer ignore the strength of feeling evident in recent protests.Cllr Doherty says the arrival of water bills in the coming weeks will give a renewed focus to their campaign, and Right2Water will hold a protest in Lifford on April 24th at which people can “bin their bills”.He says they also want people to become involved in planning the direction of the campaign:Audio Playerhttp://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/garyweds.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.Meanwhile Cant Pay Wont Pay will also hold a ‘Bin the Bills’ protest in Letterkenny on April 25th.Can’t Pay Won’t Pay says “It makes it all the more important that people turn out in large numbers on the Bin The Bills demonstration in Letterkenny on April 25th next month. Our message will be that no matter what Alan Kelly does, we will stand together and we will not be paying.” Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th Pinterest Twitter WhatsApp Google+ WhatsApp Homepage BannerNews By admin – March 25, 2015 Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic Facebook
ColumnsSoftware Patenting In India Malika Tiwari30 Jun 2020 10:02 PMShare This – xSection 3(k) of the Patents Act, 1970 states that a mathematical or business method or a computer program per se or algorithms are not patentable subject-matters in India. On a basic perusal of the provision, one can observe that the provision is broadly worded, evoking ambiguities as to what actually constitutes the part of non-patentable subject-matters under its ambit. This vagueness…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginSection 3(k) of the Patents Act, 1970 states that a mathematical or business method or a computer program per se or algorithms are not patentable subject-matters in India. On a basic perusal of the provision, one can observe that the provision is broadly worded, evoking ambiguities as to what actually constitutes the part of non-patentable subject-matters under its ambit. This vagueness has largely discouraged innovations in the field of development of computer programs. The decision regarding patentability has been rested in the discretion of the Patent Office and on the ability of the claimants of putting up a robust case for their respective products. There has hardly been any support from the word of the law, for law does not operate efficiently in a state of prevailing uncertainty. The Indian Judiciary has played a commendable role in ruling out the said ambiguities and in according a specific meaning to the provision. Ericsson v. Intex is one of the most significant cases wherein the Delhi High Court has unfolded the interpretation of the term “computer program” under Section 3(k) of the Act. In the aforesaid case, a suit for infringement of eight registered patents was filed by the plaintiff, seeking a permanent injunction coupled with damages from the defendant. In order to succeed, the plaintiff was required to establish that the source code used by the defendant in its product was the same as the source code used in plaintiff’s product. The contention of the defendant was that the patent granted to the plaintiff was invalid on the grounds of being a computer program per se. The Court held that a mere reference to the usage of a ‘procedure’, an ‘algorithm’ or a ‘method’ in an apparatus that also consists of network or hardware elements, so as to bring about a technical effect, does not put the claimed invention in the category of “computer program per se”. Reliance was placed by the court on the interpretation made in the case of VICOM Systems Inc. (Case No. T 208/84), wherein it was stated that a patentable invention based on conventional patentability criteria shouldn’t be regarded as non-patentable merely because computer programs have been used for the implementation of the said invention. Therefore, removing the anomaly and elucidating the real meaning of Section 3(k), the Court held that a computer program that makes a significant contribution to a technical art is a patentable invention and is not struck by the Section 3(k) of the Patents Act, 1970. Although the judgment in the case of Ericsson v. Intex did not completely resolve the ambiguity surrounding Section 3(k), it definitely prompted better innovations in the field of technology. Soon after, Apple was granted a patent for its method that involved a graphical user interface used to browse through and to select media tracks on electronic devices, for Apple was successfully able to prove that their invention made an actual contribution. The Patent Office ruled on the ground that computer programs become patentable subject-matters when they are coupled with novel hardware.Over time, numerous other patent applications concerning computer programs were granted approval on the basis of the aforesaid ground. The latest development concerning the patentability of computer programs has been made through the judgment of the Delhi High Court in the case of Ferid Allani v. Union of India & Ors. APCT National Phase Patent Application was filed by the petitioner, seeking patent for “a method and device for accessing information sources and services on the web”. The Patent Office objected to the application on the grounds of lack of novelty and non-patentability under Section 2(1)(j) and Section 3(k) respectively of the Patents Act, 1970. The appeal filed by the petitioner before the Intellectual Property Appellate Board from the aforesaid decision of the Patent Office was dismissed marking the grounds of absence of technical effect or technical advancement. Aggrieved by the dismissal of the appeal, the petitioner filed a Writ Petition before the Delhi High Court. The Petitioner based its contention on the Draft Guidelines for Examination of Computer Related Inventions, 2013. The guidelines define “technical effect” and “technical advancement” to include inventions which allow more efficient database search strategies, more economical use of memory, higher speed, reduced hard-disk access time, more efficient data compression techniques, improved user interface, improved reception/transmission of a radio signal or better control of robotic arm etc. Considering these guidelines, it was argued that there is a clear technical advancement and technical effect in the present case. Further, the petitioner advanced the contention that the subject-matter is not merely a software. Rather, it also requires a particular method of implementation and includes hardware elements too. The Judgment in the Ferid Allani case is on the similar lines with that in Ericsson v. Intex, and has come as a relief for innumerable software development aspirants. Highlighting that maximum inventions around us including cars, refrigerators, ovens, washing machines etc. are based on computer programs and thus, the argument that such products shall be non-patentable is un-progressive and redundant, the High Court furnished the following grounds, ruling in favour of the petitioner – 1. “Technical effect” and “Technical contribution” The Court adopted a liberal approach and duly considered the global practices related to software patents, particularly referring to Article 52(3) of European Patent Convention which states that a subject-matter is non-patentable only if it is related to computer programs ‘as such’ and not when it has a ‘technical character’. Moreover, the Court stated that foreign patent offices determine the patentability of a subject-matter taking into account the “technical effect” and “technical contribution” and a similar approach needs to be adopted in India. 2. Interpretation of the words ‘per se’ The Court held that the bar on patenting is merely for ‘computer programs per se’ and does not cover every computer program based invention. The Report of the Joint Committee on the Patents (Second Amendment) Bill, 1999 stated that in some cases, computer programmes include certain things which are ancillary thereto or developed thereon and cannot always be rejected for patents. The words “per se” were included to avoid denying patents to genuine inventions and indicate a narrow interpretation. 3. Guidelines on Computer Related Inventions Three sets of guidelines relating to CRIs have been issued by the Patent Office showing different tests for the determination of patentability – (i) Draft Guidelines for Examination of Computer Related Inventions, 2013. These guidelines interpret the words ‘per se’ to mean ‘by itself’, stating that they intends to indicate towards something ‘independently on its own’ instead of being ‘in connection’ with something else. This apart, the guidelines portrayed some ambiguities and overreaching relaxation for software patenting. (ii) Guidelines for Examination of Computer Related Inventions, 2016. Instead of mending the issue of excessive relaxation, these guidelines widened this issue and propounded that software shall be examined on the touchstone of existence of a conjunction with a novel hardware for patentability. (iii) Revised Guidelines for Examination of Computer Related Inventions, 2017. These guidelines focus on the substance of an invention rather than its claimed form. But the lacuna here is that these guidelines don’t illustrate in detail about what actually falls under Section 3(k). On the basis of the aforementioned reasons, the Court directed the Patent Office to re-examine the application in light of these guidelines. Thus, the judgment opens doors for patenting of new technologies based on Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Block-chain and depicts a growing trend towards liberal patentability. Even after the development of the legal position on software patentability, the situation still remains highly uncertain. The reluctance in upholding the patentability of software is logically woven. One of the reasons is that software patenting merely increases the number of patents instead of actual innovation and novelty. Also, it is an extremely difficult task to determine the software which do and do not fall under the ambit of ‘computer program per se’ in the absence of a clear definition of ‘technical contribution’. Studies show that softwares have noticeably short innovation cycles, un-warranting the long period of 20 years that is granted to patents. Furthermore, protection for software can also be claimed under the Copyright Law by considering them under the category of literary work. Thus, according to critics, there does not really exist a requirement of opening up the doors of patenting for computer programs. Nevertheless, it is pertinent to discuss the following points here – 1. An ordinance presented in 2004 which proposed the language of the provision to be ‘computer programme per se other than its technical application to industry or a combination with hardware’ was rejected by the Parliament, depicting the undoubted intention of the legislature against software patentability. This raises the question whether the judiciary was actually justified in going against the intention of the legislation? Clearly, the Court has knowingly acted outside its domain of power. 2. The respondent’s contention that the Court cannot re-appreciate the technical arguments raised before the tribunal has not been addressed by the Court. Rather, a straightaway direction of re-examination of the application was given. Was the Court justified in taking this action? 3. Potential questions like whether the judgment warrants the re-examination of software related applications rejected before the issuance of CRI Guidelines were not addressed by the Court. No stance on the prospective or retrospective application of the aforesaid guidelines was laid leading to the enhancement of already prevailing ambiguity. 4. The constantly revised and amended guidelines portray the instability of legal position on the method and tests of determination of software patentability. Therefore, the debate still continues, for the judicial precedents show inconsistent approach in dealing with Section 3(k). Even after fulfilling all the required tests including that of hardware involvement and technical contributions in multiple foreign jurisdictions, few applications have unreasonably been refused patents in India. On the other hand, the method for detecting malicious software, the software for hyper linking names, the method for enhancing ad features to increase competition in online advertising etc. have all been successfully granted patents. In such a debatable scenario, the parliament needs to immediately pass a legislation addressing all the issues that emanate when it comes to patenting of software and computer programs. SOFTWARE PATENTABILITY IN UNITED STATES In United States, software or computer implemented processes are patentable as long as they are unique, in combination with a machine and depict an identifiable instrument. In order to determine the patentability of a computer program, the Courts in US adopt the Alice/Mayo framework. According to the said framework, the patent examiner or the judicial authority etc. is required to ask and answer various questions about an invention including whether there is an inventive step, whether the subject-matter falls under the three judicial exceptions of patentability namely laws of nature, physical phenomena and abstract ideas and whether the invention adds ‘significantly more’ to the status quo than simply a judicial exception. Computer programs largely fall under the abstract idea category of the said exceptions when they refer to a generic process where the computers are used merely as a process executing tool. Consequently, one needs to establish that his invention is over and above an abstract computer program and that it improves ‘computer functionality’ or solves a computing challenge in an unconventional way, thus transforming the abstract idea of software into a patent-eligible application. The following case laws can be referred to understand the approach adopted by the judiciary in granting software patents. In the case of TLI Communications LLC v. AV Automotive, it was held that a mere claim for a patent for a method of recording, administration and archiving of digital images from a mobile phone over a cellular network does not satisfy the test of patentability of software. Perhaps, the claimants need to formulate an effective way of putting forth their invention that does not depict a generic image of their invention. Also, in the case of Diamond v. Diehr, patent was granted to a method of operating a rubber molding press through a software using an unidentified mathematical equation, for the process brought about a change in the physical state of things. The patent was granted because it more than an abstract idea and is responsible for bringing actual change to the status quo. In the case of DDR Holdings, LLC v. Hotels.com, L.P., the Court granted patent to a method for creating and displaying a hybrid webpage, having aesthetic elements from one website and the content from a third party website. The Court held that the software resulted in improvising customer retention in an unconventional manner and hence, qualified the requirements of software patentability test. This evinces that US has largely relaxed its laws for software patentability and is no more sticking to the traditional brick and mortar approach. SOFTWARE PATENTABILITY IN UNITED KINGDOM Although the UK Patents Act, 1977 does not extend any patent protection to computer programs, the same is true only for computer programs as such. The Patent Office assesses software patentability on the grounds of novelty and the existence of technical contribution. The decision of granting patents is taken majorly on the basis of the following five grounds, as have emanated from the decision of High Court in the matter of AT&T Knowledge Ventures LP and CVON Innovations Ltd. v. Comptroller General of Patents – 1. Whether the claimed technical effect has a technical effect on a process which is carried on outside the computer; 2. Whether the claimed technical effect operates at the level of the architecture of the computer; that is to say whether the effect is produced irrespective of the data being processed or the applications being run; 3. Whether the claimed technical effect results in the computer being made to operate in a new way; 4. Whether there is an increase in the speed or reliability of the computer; 5. Whether the perceived problem is overcome by the claimed invention as opposed to merely being circumvented. A thorough perusal of the patentability trends over the years clearly show that more and more patents are being granted to software and computer programs in US and UK. There has been a noticeable reduction in the rigidity of law regarding patenting of abstract ideas, which has resulted in fostering of better innovation in the field of software development. A reference may be made to the prevailing laws in these foreign jurisdictions in order to make a robust software patentability law for Indian scenario, so as to eliminate potential ambiguities and other challenges that the said jurisdictions had to face and that they have overcome. This will help the parliament in making a highly informed decision and will avoid the possibilities of leaving loopholes in Indian law. After all, the most effective way to boost any economy is to encourage innovations in a regulated manner, creating a win-win situation for all. Views are personal only.(Author is 4th year B.Com LL.B. 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