We present a high-resolution record of water-soluble ion chemistry from a 121 m ice core spanning about 800 years. The core is well dated to 2/3 depth using cycle counting and reference horizons and a simple but close fitting model for the lower 1/3 of the core. This core suffers from modest seasonal melt, and so we present concentration data in decadal running means to minimize percolation effects. Sea-salt ions (Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, and K+) account for more than 70% of all ions. In general, sea-salt ion concentrations are rather variable and have no clear association with climatic variations. Sulfate, with 74% being from non-sea-salt sources, has higher concentrations than seen on Vestfonna ice cap but lower than in Ny-Ålesund aerosols, suggesting central Spitsbergen receives more marine (westerly) air masses than Ny-Ålesund but more sulfate enriched (easterly) air masses than Nordaustlandet. Clear anthropogenic impacts are found for sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (and probably excess chloride) after the mid twentieth century, with sulfate showing a significant rise by the end of the nineteenth century. Sulfate and methanesulfonate concentrations correlate well during the twentieth century, and it is clear that most of the preindustrial sulfate is of biogenic origin. Terrestrial component (Ca2+) has the highest concentrations in the coldest part of the Little Ice Age, suggesting more windy conditions, transporting local terrestrial dust to the ice cap. All ion concentrations decrease at the end of the twentieth century, which reflects loss of ions by runoff, with non-sea-salt magnesium being particularly sensitive to melting.
The reproductive biology of two species of endemic Southern Ocean octopods was investigated around the sub-Antarctic islands of South Georgia and Shag Rocks. The females of both the species produce few, large eggs. This appears to be governed by phylogenetic constraint. No evidence was found for ontogenetic migration or seasonality associated with gonad maturation. Based on oocyte length frequency distributions and observations of oocyte development within the ovary, it is possible that both species could have either a single or multiple-batch spawning strategy. Pareledone turqueti ovaries contained fewer larger oocytes than those of Adefieledone polymorpha, which may help to reduce competition for resources immediately after hatching.
We compared Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella breeding at 2 contrasting sites on South Georgia: one high density colony at Bird Island and one lower density colony at Cooper Bay. The population at Cooper Bay was considerably smaller than that at Bird Island despite ample suitable breeding area being available. At Cooper Bay, female seals were longer but weighed less than those breeding at Bird Island and, whilst both maintained the same rate of female pup growth, male pups grew faster at Cooper Bay. Although Bird Island seals dived deeper, they dived less often than Cooper Bay seals so that both populations spent comparable amounts of time in the bottom phase of dives actively foraging. Longer distance oceanic foraging trips that were observed at Bird Island were almost entirely absent from Cooper Bay. Both populations fed on Antarctic krill, but there was an absence of myctophid prey in the diet of seals at Cooper Bay. Evidence suggests that the favoured myctophid prey of fur seals at South Georgia, Protomyctophum choriodon, are absent from the colder waters around the south-east of the island. We propose that, if these energy-rich prey are unavailable in this region then seals at Cooper Bay may find it hard to offset the increased costs of foraging trips with longer duration and distance. This potentially reduced niche width means that the Cooper Bay population may be less buffered against environmental variability. Although food resources appeared to be sufficient during the period of our study, the south-eastern region of South Georgia has increased variability in food resources that, coupled with a smaller area in which to forage, might explain the reduced population size compared to the north-eastern end of the island.
We describe a geophysical technique to measure englacial vertical velocities through to the beds of ice sheets without the need for borehole drilling. Using a ground-based phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (pRES) during seven Antarctic field seasons, we measure the temporal changes in the position of englacial reflectors within ice divides up to 900 m thick on Berkner Island, Roosevelt Island, Fletcher Promontory and Adelaide Island. Recorded changes in reflector positions yield ‘full-depth’ profiles of vertical ice velocity that we use to examine spatial variations in ice flow near the divides. We interpret these variations by comparing them to the results of a full-Stokes simulation of ice-divide flow, qualitatively validating the model and demonstrating that we are directly detecting an ice-dynamical phenomenon called the Raymond Effect. Using pRES, englacial vertical ice velocities can be measured in higher spatial resolution than is possible using instruments installed within the ice. We discuss how these measurements could be used with inverse methods to measure ice rheology, and to improve ice-core dating by incorporating pRES-measured vertical velocities into age modelling.
This study presents a new ion-neutral chemical model coupled into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The ionospheric D region (altitudes ~ 50–90 km) chemistry is based on the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry (SIC) model, a 1-dimensional model containing 306 ion-neutral and ionrecombination reactions of neutral species, positive and negative ions, and electrons. The SIC mechanism was reduced using the Simulation Error Minimization Connectivity Method (SEM-CM) to produce a reaction scheme of 181 ion-molecule reactions. This scheme describes the concentration profiles at altitudes between 20 km and 120 km of a set of major neutral species (HNO3, O3, H2O2, NO, NO2, HO2, OH, N2O5) and ions (O2+, O4+, NO+, NO+(H2O), O2+(H2O), H+(H2O), H+(H2O)2, H+(H2O)3, H+(H2O)4, O3−, NO2−, O−, O2, OH−, O2−(H2O), O2−(H2O)2, O4−, CO3−, CO3−(H2O), CO4−, HCO3−, NO2−, NO3−, NO3−(H2O), NO3(H2O)2, NO3−(HNO3), NO3−(HNO3)2, Cl−, ClO−), which agree with the full SIC mechanism within a 5 % tolerance. Four 3D model simulations were then performed, using the impact of the January 2005 Solar Proton Event (SPE) on D region HOx and NOx chemistry as a test case of four different model versions: the standard WACCM (no negative ions and a very limited set of positive ions); WACCM-SIC (standard WACCM with the full SIC chemistry of positive and negative ions); WACCM-D (standard WACCM with a heuristic reduction of the SIC chemistry, recently used to examine HNO3 formation following an SPE); and WACCM-rSIC (standard WACCM with a reduction of SIC chemistry using the SEM-CM Method). Standard WACCM misses the HNO3 enhancement during the SPE, while the full and reduced model versions predict significant NOx, HOx and HNO3 enhancements in the mesosphere during solar proton events. The SEM-CM reduction also identifies the important ion-molecule reactions that affect the partitioning of odd nitrogen (NOx), odd hydrogen (HOx), and O3 in the stratosphere and mesosphere.
Written by Tags: Aleea Gwerder/Cameron Tingey/Carly Nelson/Eden Jacobsen/Hailey Skolmoski/Hayley Cacciacarne/Hayley Farrar/Holly Daugirda/Ireland Dunn/Janie Kearl/Jessica Hixson/July Mathias/Kristin Fairbairn/Liberty Taylor/Madi Clarkson/Max Flom/Mikayla Elmer/Natalee Wells/Natalie Kump/Natalie Vukic/Paola van der Veen/SaraJean Edwards/Tatum Thornton/Tavia Leachman/Utah Women’s Soccer/Zona Kinnaman Brad James July 23, 2018 /Sports News – Local Utah Soccer Excels in Classroom During Spring Semester FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailSALT LAKE CITY-A report released Monday confirmed the University of Utah’s women’s soccer team has excelled in the classroom this past semester.During the 2018 spring semester, 19 Utah women’s soccer student-athletes were named to the Honor Roll and Dean’s List.To earn a spot on the dean’s list, a Utah student-athlete must have a GPA over 3.50 for the semester.These players include graduates Janie Kearl, July Mathias and Natalie Vukic.Current players include Ireland Dunn, SaraJean Edwards, Hayley Farrar, Max Flom, Aleea Gwerder, Jessica Hixson, Natalie Kump, Hailey Skolmoski, Liberty Taylor, Tatum Thornton, Cameron Tingey and Paola van der Veen.These student-athletes also qualified for the Honor Roll, which requires a minimum 3.0 GPA, along with Holly Daugirda, Zona Kinnaman and graduates Madi Clarkson and Mikayla Elmer.Back in April, Daugirda, Edwards, Farrar, Flom, Hixson, Kump, Mathias, Skolmoski, Tingey and Vukic all participated in the inaugural “All A’s” dinner for earning a GPA of 3.70 or higher for the fall semester of 2017.Additionally, 16 Utes earned all Pac-12 academic accolades. The first-team selections include Flom and Mathias.Making the second team were Kearl, Skolmoski and Vukic.Honorable mention honorees for the Utes included Van der Veen, Daugirda, Dunn, Gwerder, Haylee Cacciacarne, Kristin Fairbairn, Eden Jacobsen, Tavia Leachman, Carly Nelson and Natalee Wells.The collective GPA for the squad was 3.36 for the spring and has a cumulative mark of 3.53.Utah was honored with a Team Academic Award by the United Soccer Coaches in 2017 after the squad posted the best GPA in the Pac-12, ranking 19th nationally among Division I programs.
Written by Beau Lund September 2, 2018 /Sports News – National Tennis player Monica Puig raises money for Puerto Rico, inspiring island as it rebuilds after Hurricane Maria FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailMiguel Lozada(SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico) — Miguel Lozada remembers the moment tennis exploded on the island of Puerto Rico.“Years ago we had Roberto Clemente, but when Monica won the gold medal – I had never seen a community completely paralyzed to see that match,” he said.San Juan native Monica Puig had just won the gold medal at the 2016 Rio Olympics, the first the island has won under the Puerto Rican flag.“Very quickly after the win, my cell phone started to ring. From 50 students, it went up to 100. People calling to get classes so they can get their kids to play tennis – they all wanted to be like Monica Puig,” Lozada said.Puig calls that moment overwhelming.“I never saw myself as like anybody’s idol and there are these little kids running up to me saying I want to be just like you when I grow up and I was like really?” Puig told ABC News after a match at the US Open.Hurricane Maria made landfall on Sept. 20, 2017, as a category 4 hurricane. Maria left in its wake nearly $140 billion in damage, claiming thousands of lives and leaving the whole island in need of healing.In the aftermath of the storm, Puig started an online fundraising campaign to collect donations for people on the island.“After the Hurricane, I went with Maria [Sharapova] with the money that we set up with the YouCaring account we were able to buy insulin for the hospitals, portable stoves, gasoline for the stoves, lanterns for light,” Puig saidPuig has raised nearly $200,000.“Their faces of happiness: How they came in, took a ball and they started playing before I started to give the lesson,” Lozada said.Lozada still remembers the day his tennis facility reopened months after Hurricane Maria – dozens of his students returned to play.The effect of Maria was felt in every corner of the island including at Lozada’s El Valenciano Tennis Academy in the eastern central town of Juncos. The facility that had 2 courts and lights to allow for play at night was damaged.“Even though we didn’t have power, we still found a way to practice… the children would say ‘I need to practice. I want to play,’” Lozada said.Omar Davila’s son Jayden trains at Lozada’s facility. The weeks after the storm, the 7-year old would ask his father when he could start to play again.Davilia said that the academy’s nearly 100 students wanted to see each other after the storm in an effort to return to some normalcy.“Sports united them,” Davila said, adding, “tennis gave them a desire to get ahead in life, to be better, to help their neighbors. It was something very beautiful and a lot more than before the hurricane.”The United States Tennis Association, organizers of the US Open now in its 50th year, have exclusively told ABC News that they have pledged $350,000 to refurbish facilities and restart programming throughout the island. The USTA Foundation says that all contributions will go directly towards Puerto Rico.The next phase of the recovery for Puig is helping to grow the sport and to ensure people’s homes will remain safe.“We are looking at what we can do with all the money that is continuing to come in. And I think we are going to go more into rebuilding roofs of houses,” she said.Lozada and the children of his camp embody a phrase heard so often on the island after the storm Puerto Rico Se Levanta – Puerto Rico rises.“Maria stopped us but it also taught us that we need to reinvent ourselves. We have to go forward,” Lozada said.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
Beau Lund FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailiStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Here are the scores from Tuesday’s sports events:NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATIONCleveland 113, Charlotte 89Houston 109, Denver 99Golden State 110, Atlanta 103NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUENew Jersey 4, Pittsburgh 2N.Y. Islanders 5, Vancouver 2Florida 2, Philadelphia 1Buffalo 2, Tampa Bay 1Detroit 6, Arizona 1Washington 5, Minnesota 2Edmonton 6, Montreal 2Toronto 5, L.A. Kings 1San Jose 5, Nashville 4TOP-25 COLLEGE BASKETBALL(5) Tennessee 66, Georgia Tech 53(22) LSU 85, Memphis 76Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved. Written by November 14, 2018 /Sports News – National Scoreboard roundup — 11/13/18
A single and two home runs in the first inning accounted for the three Lamar runsBYU allowed only one Cardinal runner to reach as far as third base the remainder of the gameThe Cougars scored their lone run after Noah Hill doubled and Carson Matthews hit an RBI single in the second inning March 1, 2019 /Sports News – Local BYU Loses Game Two at Lamar Written by Game Summary Tags: BYU Cougars Baseball Carson Matthews: 2-4, RBI, SBNoah Hill: 1-4, 2B, RRiley Gates: 2.0 IP, 0 ER, H, BB Sophomore Mitch McIntyre saw his first time on the mound in the fifth, pitching 0.2 innings with one hit and no runs. Sophomore Easton Walker and senior Riley Gates finished the final 3.1 innings for BYU, allowing only two hits combined. In all, the BYU bullpen extended its streak without an earned run to 20 innings. Player Highlights FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailBEAUMONT, Texas – BYU baseball held Lamar to eight-straight scoreless innings, but a three-run first was all the Cardinals needed to defeat the Cougars 3-1 on Friday. BYU and Lamar will finish the series with a third game on Saturday, March 2, at 11 a.m. MT. The game can again be seen on the Lamar Athletics Facebook page or heard on BYU Radio and ESPN 960. With two outs in the second inning, senior Noah Hill hit a double down the left field line, then advanced to third on a passed ball. Freshman Carson Matthews then knocked him home on an infield single. Junior Jarod Lessar (1-1) gave up a single and a pair of home runs in the bottom of the first inning as Lamar (5-5) went up 3-0 early. But the right-hander soon found a groove, striking out three and allowing just one more hit over the next three innings for BYU (6-3). “We played a solid game tonight, but just couldn’t put anything together offensively,” BYU head coach Mike Littlewood said. “We had (Lamar pitcher Jason) Blanchard on the ropes early, but he settled in and did a nice job keeping us off balance all night.” Robert Lovell
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailsmontgom65/iStock(CHICAGO) — The Chicago Cubs have indefinitely banned a man from Wrigley Field after the individual was caught on camera this week appearing to make an offensive hand gesture, the team announced.The incident took place during the NBC Sports Chicago broadcast of the Cubs’ May 7 game against the Miami Marlins. A man in a Cubs sweatshirt sitting behind the booth where NBC Sports Chicago analyst Doug Glanville was speaking on camera was observed making an upside-down OK gesture with his hand, which is construed by many as a white supremacist symbol. Cubs president of business operations Crane Kenney said in a statement Wednesday that the team reviewed the broadcast and “concluded this individual’s actions violated the Guest Code of Conduct.” Kenney said the team was unable to reach the unnamed individual by phone but sent him a letter stating that he would “not be permitted on the grounds of Wrigley Field or other ticketed areas indefinitely.”He added that the man could be prosecuted for criminal trespass if he attempts to re-enter Wrigley Field.Theo Epstein, the Cubs’ president of baseball operations, called the fan’s actions “truly disgusting” and said it “gave [him] shivers to watch” the incident.“I think, appropriately, we’ve made clear how egregious and unacceptable that behavior is, and there’s no place for it in our society, in baseball, and certainly no place at Wrigley Field,” Epstein said.Kevin Cross, senior vice president and general manager for NBC Sports Chicago, said in a statement Wednesday that the fan’s behavior was “reprehensible” and said that it did not “represent the great Cubs fans of our city and those around the country.”Glanville, a former Major League Baseball outfielder who played two stints for the Cubs, said he found out about the gesture after the end of his segment.“I applaud the responsiveness of both the Chicago Cubs organization and NBC Sports in investigating this matter,” Glanville said in a statement. “They have reached out to me and are supportive of my role in the broadcast and continue to have a desire to uphold an inclusive environment at Wrigley Field. They have displayed sensitivity as to how the implications of this would affect me as a person of color.”The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) said that while the hand gesture is usually associated with the word “okay,” members of the website 4chan created a hoax in 2017 that claimed the gesture represented the letters W and P for “white power,” hoping that “the media and liberals would overreact by condemning a common image as white supremacist.”For a time, the symbol was a “popular trolling tactic”, but the ADL says that by 2019 it had also become “a sincere expression of white supremacy.” The Southern Poverty Law Center also noted that “a number of alt-right figures” had been photographed using the symbol before the 4chan hoax.ADL officials said that the gesture can still be used to mean “okay” and for other contexts, including for the “circle game,” where participants attempt to trick others into looking at a similar gesture below one’s waist, and as a symbol for the Three Percenter movement, a pro gun rights militia group.Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved. Beau Lund May 10, 2019 /Sports News – National Chicago Cubs ban fan who made seemingly offensive hand gesture on TV broadcast Written by